Details instrumentation


Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometers (IRMS)

The Thermo Finnigan (Deltaplus) is equipped with a Gasbench II coupled to a CombiPal autosampler for C and O isotope measurements:

  1. solids:

  2. Inorganic carbonates (e.g. speleothems, calcite veins)

  3. Biogenic carbonates (e.g. foraminifera, molluscan shells) and apatites (e.g. bone and teeth)

  4. fluids:

  5. C isotopes of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) from water samples

  6. O isotopes in fresh- and saltwater samples

The Deltaplus XP is equipped with a Conflo III and can be connected to various preparation units including the Flash Elemental Analyzer, the High Temperature Conversion Elemental Analyzer (TC/EA) and the in-house developed Amsterdam Device.

  1. Flash Elemental Analyzer coupled to zero-blank autosampler for solid samples to measure C and N isotope ratios in substances like collagen, hair, coal, diamonds and organic matter in sediment samples

  1. High Temperature Conversion Elemental Analyzer (TC/EA) coupled to:

  2. Zero-blank autosampler for solid samples to measure:

  3. -H isotope ratios in organic substances like hair

  4. -O isotopes in AgPO4 converted from (biogenic) appetites incl.  bones and teeth

  5. -O isotopes in sulfates like BaSO4

  6. CombiPal autosampler for fluids to measure:

  7. -Combined H and O isotope ratios in water samples

  8. -The here-developed Amsterdam Device Vonhof et al., (2006) for fluid inclusion water extraction from rock samples to measure combined H and O isotope ratios in fluid inclusions, which are present in e.g. speleothems, (cold-water) corals and hydrothermal deposits.

Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) Analyzers

  1. Picarro L2140-i CRDS Analyzer coupled to an ALS-G xyz robotic autosampler for H and O isotope ratios in fresh to salt water samples.

  2. Picarro G2201-i CRDS (Field deployable) Analyzer makes precise C isotope measurements on methane and carbon dioxide

  3. Picarro G2201-i CRDS Analyzer coupled to an OI Aurora for measurement of C isotopes in Dissolved Inorganic Carbon (DIC) and Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) of water samples

Other facilities

Merchantek automated micro-mill equipped with a microscope and camera for precise sampling of growth lines in shells or stalagmites, and very small areas on thin sections for isotope and elemental analyses.

Facilities for the preparation, purification and extraction of samples (e.g. leaching of carbonates and apatites and conversion of (biogenic apatites) into AgPO4) for isotope analysis are available within the department of Earth Sciences.

Stable isotope services

For additional information of our stable isotope services, consultancies, collaborations, opportunities, routinely performed analyses and pricing please contact the stable isotope laboratory:  or  our contact form

We also welcome guest researchers, who want perform isotope analyses over longer periods time.


Drs. Suzan Verdegaal-Warmerdam (Lab manager)

+31 20 59 87327

Remy van Baal MSc (Research technician)

+31 20 59 87327

Dr. Jeroen van der Lubbe (Scientific leader)


Visiting and post address:

Drs. Suzan Verdegaal-Warmerdam

Room F-330

VU University Amsterdam
Faculty of Earth & Life Sciences
Department of Earth Sciences, Cluster Geochemistry & Geology
De Boelelaan 1085
1081 HV Amsterdam
The Netherlands


+31 20 59 87327


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Current projects


Details instrumentation at the earth science Stable Isotope Laboratory

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  1. Fracturing and calcite cementation controlling fluid flow in the shallow-water carbonates of the Jandaíra Formation, Brazil. de Graaf, S., Reijmer, J.J.G., Bertotti, G.V., Bezerra, F.H.R., Cazarin, C.L., Bisdom, K., Vonhof, H.B., 2017. Marine and Petroleum Geology 80, 382-393.


  1. Stable isotopes and geochemistry of a Campanian–Maastrichtian pelagic succession, Mudurnu–Göynük Basin, NW Turkey: Implications for palaeoceanography, palaeoclimate and sea-level fluctuations. Açıkalın, S., Ocakoğlu, F., Yılmaz, İ.Ö., Vonhof, H., Hakyemez, A., Smit, J., 2016. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 441, Part 3, 453-466.

  1. The use of δ2H and δ18O isotopic analyses combined with chemometrics as a traceability tool for the geographical origin of bell peppers. de Rijke, E., Schoorl, J.C., Cerli, C., Vonhof, H.B., Verdegaal, S.J.A., Vivó-Truyols, G., Lopatka, M., Dekter, R., Bakker, D., Sjerps, M.J., Ebskamp, M., de Koster, C.G., 2016. Food Chemistry 204, 122-128.

  1. Tooth enamel stable isotopes of Holocene and Pleistocene fossil fauna reveal glacial and interglacial paleoenvironments of hominins in Indonesia. Janssen, R., Joordens, J.C.A., Koutamanis, D.S., Puspaningrum, M.R., de Vos, J., van der Lubbe, J.H.J.L., Reijmer, J.J.G., Hampe, O., Vonhof, H.B., 2016. Quaternary Science Reviews 144, 145-154.

  1. Human dietary assessment in the Pre-colonial Lesser Antilles: New stable isotope evidence from Lavoutte, Saint Lucia. Laffoon, J.E., Hoogland, M.L.P., Davies, G.R., Hofman, C.L., 2016a. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports 5, 168-180.

  1. Sourcing nonnative mammal remains from Dos Mosquises Island, Venezuela: new multiple isotope evidence. Laffoon, J.E., Sonnemann, T.F., Antczak, M.M., Antczak, A., 2016b. Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences, 1-17.

  1. Stable isotopes, niche partitioning and the paucity of elasmosaur remains in the Maastrichtian type area. Schulp, A.S., Janssen, R., van Baal, R.R., Jagt, J.W.M., Mulder, E.W.A., Vonhof, H.B., 2016. Netherlands Journal of Geosciences - Geologie en Mijnbouw, 1-5.


  1. Geochemical and palaeontological characterization of a new K-Pg Boundary locality from the Northern branch of the Neo-Tethys: Mudurnu – Göynük Basin, NW Turkey. Açıkalın, S., Vellekoop, J., Ocakoğlu, F., Yılmaz, İ.Ö., Smit, J., Altıner, S.Ö., Goderis, S., Vonhof, H., Speijer, R.P., Woelders, L., Fornaciari, E., Brinkhuis, H., 2015. Cretaceous Research 52, Part A, 251-267.

  1. Bahamian speleothem reveals temperature decrease associated with Heinrich stadials. Arienzo, M.M., Swart, P.K., Pourmand, A., Broad, K., Clement, A.C., Murphy, L.N., Vonhof, H.B., Kakuk, B., 2015. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 430, 377-386.

  1. A Test of the Biogenicity Criteria Established for Microfossils and Stromatolites on Quaternary Tufa and Speleothem Materials Formed in the "Twilight Zone" at Caerwys, UK. Brasier, A.T., Rogerson, M.R., Mercedes-Martin, R., Vonhof, H.B., Reijmer, J.J., 2015. Astrobiology 15, 883-900.

  1. Recent changes in the freshwater composition east of Greenland. de Steur, L., Pickart, R.S., Torres, D.J., Valdimarsson, H., 2015. Geophysical Research Letters 42, 2326-2332.

  1. Effect of glacial drainage water on the CO2 system and ocean acidification state in an Arctic tidewater-glacier fjord during two contrasting years. Fransson, A., Chierici, M., Nomura, D., Granskog, M.A., Kristiansen, S., Martma, T., Nehrke, G., 2015. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 120, 2413-2429.

  1. Homo erectus at Trinil on Java used shells for tool production and engraving. Joordens, J.C.A., d'Errico, F., Wesselingh, F.P., Munro, S., de Vos, J., Wallinga, J., Ankjaergaard, C., Reimann, T., Wijbrans, J.R., Kuiper, K.F., Mucher, H.J., Coqueugniot, H., Prie, V., Joosten, I., van Os, B., Schulp, A.S., Panuel, M., van der Haas, V., Lustenhouwer, W., Reijmer, J.J.G., Roebroeks, W., 2015. Nature 518, 228-231.

  1. A high-resolution fluid inclusion δ18O record from a stalagmite in SW France: modern calibration and comparison with multiple proxies. Labuhn, I., Genty, D., Vonhof, H., Bourdin, C., Blamart, D., Douville, E., Ruan, J., Cheng, H., Edwards, R.L., Pons-Branchu, E., Pierre, M., 2015. Quaternary Science Reviews 110, 152-165.

  1. Late Pleistocene glacial–interglacial shell-size–isotope variability in planktonic foraminifera as a function of local hydrography. Metcalfe, B., Feldmeijer, W., de Vringer-Picon, M., Brummer, G.J.A., Peeters, F.J.C., Ganssen, G.M., 2015. Biogeosciences 12, 4781-4807.

  1. Calciturbidites and calcidebrites: Sea-level variations or tectonic processes? Reijmer, J.J.G., Palmieri, P., Groen, R., Floquet, M., 2015. Sedimentary Geology 317, 53-70.

  1. New material of Prognathodon (Squamata, Mosasauridae) from the type Maastrichtian of the Netherlands. Schulp, A.S., Jagt, J.W.M., 2015. Netherlands Journal of Geosciences - Geologie en Mijnbouw 94, 19-21.

  1. Saline Indian Ocean waters invaded the South Atlantic thermocline during glacial termination II. Scussolini, P., Marino, G., Brummer, G.-J.A., Peeters, F.J.C., 2015. Geology 43, 139-142.

  1. Geological setting and paleoecology of the Upper Cretaceous Bench 19 Marine Vertebrate Bonebed at Bentiaba, Angola. Strganac, C., Jacobs, L.L., Polcyn, M.J., Mateus, O., Myers, T.S., Salminen, J., May, S.R., Araújo, R., Ferguson, K.M., Gonçalves, A.O., Morais, M.L., Schulp, A.S., da Silva Tavares, T., 2015. Netherlands Journal of Geosciences - Geologie en Mijnbouw 94, 121-136.

  1. Ocean currents generate large footprints in marine palaeoclimate proxies. van Sebille, E., Scussolini, P., Durgadoo, J.V., Peeters, F.J.C., Biastoch, A., Weijer, W., Turney, C., Paris, C.B., Zahn, R., 2015. Nature Communications 6, 6521.


  1. Carbon isotopic evidence for organic matter oxidation in soils of the Old Red Sandstone (Silurian to Devonian, South Wales, UK). Brasier, A.T., Morris, J.L., Hillier, R.D., 2014. Journal of the Geological Society.

  1. Long-distance exchange in the precolonial Circum-Caribbean: A multi-isotope study of animal tooth pendants from Puerto Rico. Laffoon, J.E., Rodríguez Ramos, R., Chanlatte Baik, L., Narganes Storde, Y., Rodríguez Lopez, M., Davies, G.R., Hofman, C.L., 2014. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 35, 220-233.

  1. Diagenetic patterns and pore space distribution along a platform to outer-shelf transect (Urgonian limestone, Barremian–Aptian, SE France). Léonide, P., Fournier, F., Reijmer, J.J.G., Vonhof, H., Borgomano, J., Dijk, J., Rosenthal, M., van Goethem, M., Cochard, J., Meulenaars, K., 2014. Sedimentary Geology 306, 1-23.

  1. Carbonate mound development in contrasting settings on the Irish margin. van der Land, C., Eisele, M., Mienis, F., de Haas, H., Hebbeln, D., Reijmer, J.J.G., van Weering, T.C.E., 2014. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography 99, 297-306.


  1. Measurement of δ18O and δ2H values of fluid inclusion water in speleothems using cavity ring-down spectroscopy compared with isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Arienzo, M.M., Swart, P.K., Vonhof, H.B., 2013. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 27, 2616-2624.

  1. Earth’s earliest global glaciation? Brasier, A.T., Martin, A.P., Melezhik, V.A., Prave, T., Condon, D.J., Fallick, A.E., 2013. Precambrian Research 235, 278-294.

  1. The first wolf found in the Netherlands in 150 years was the victim of a wildlife crime. Gravendeel, B., Groot, G.A.d., Kik, M., Beentjes, K., Bergman, H., Caniglia, R., Cremers, H., Fabbri, E., Groenenberg, D., Grone, A., Groot Bruinderink, G.W.T.A., Font, I., Hakhof, J., Harms, V., Jansman, H.A.H., Janssen, R., Lammertsma, D.R., Laros, I., Linnartz, L., Marel, D.v.d., Mulder, J.L., Mije, S.v.d., Nieman, A.M., Nowak, C., Randi, E., Rijks, M., Speksnijder, A., Vonhof, H.B., 2013. Lutra 56, 93-109.

  1. Australasian monsoon response to Dansgaard–Oeschger event 21 and teleconnections to higher latitudes. Griffiths, M.L., Drysdale, R.N., Gagan, M.K., Hellstrom, J.C., Couchoud, I., Ayliffe, L.K., Vonhof, H.B., Hantoro, W.S., 2013. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 369–370, 294-304.

  1. Improved age control on early Homo fossils from the upper Burgi Member at Koobi Fora, Kenya. Joordens, J.C.A., Dupont-Nivet, G., Feibel, C.S., Spoor, F., Sier, M.J., van der Lubbe, J.H.J.L., Nielsen, T.K., Knul, M.V., Davies, G.R., Vonhof, H.B., 2013. Journal of Human Evolution 65, 731-745.

  1. Oxygen and carbon isotope analysis of human dental enmale from the Caribbean: implications for investigating individual origins. Laffoon, J.E., Rojas, R.V., Hofman, C.L., 2013. Archaeometry 55, 742-765.

  1. On diving and diet: resource partitioning in type-Maastrichtian mosasaurs. Schulp, A.S., Vonhof, H.B., van der Lubbe, J.H.J.L., Janssen, R., van Baal, R.R., 2013. Netherlands Journal of Geosciences - Geologie en Mijnbouw 92, 165-170.

  1. A record of the last 460 thousand years of upper ocean stratification from the central Walvis Ridge, South Atlantic. Scussolini, P., Peeters, F.J.C., 2013. Paleoceanography 28, 426-439.

  1. Paleo Agulhas rings enter the subtropical gyre during the penultimate deglaciation. Scussolini, P., van Sebille, E., Durgadoo, J.V., 2013. Clim. Past 9, 2631-2639.

  1. Oxygen and carbon stable isotope records of marine vertebrates from the type Maastrichtian, The Netherlands and northeast Belgium (Late Cretaceous). van Baal, R.R., Janssen, R., van der Lubbe, H.J.L., Schulp, A.S., Jagt, J.W.M., Vonhof, H.B., 2013. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 392, 71-78.

  1. Environmental and climatic control on seasonal stable isotope variation of freshwater molluscan bivalves in the Turkana Basin (Kenya). Vonhof, H.B., Joordens, J.C.A., Noback, M.L., van der Lubbe, J.H.J.L., Feibel, C.S., Kroon, D., 2013. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 383–384, 16-26.

2012 and older

  1. Relationship between Late Pleistocene sea-level variations, carbonate platform morphology and aragonite production (Maldives, Indian Ocean). Paul, A., Reijmer, J.J.G., Fürstenau, J., Kinkel, H., Betzler, C., 2012. Sedimentology 59, 1640-1658.

  1. Speleothem isotopic evidence of winter rainfall variability in northeast Turkey between 77 and 6 ka. Rowe, P.J., Mason, J.E., Andrews, J.E., Marca, A.D., Thomas, L., van Calsteren, P., Jex, C.N., Vonhof, H.B., Al-Omari, S., 2012. Quaternary Science Reviews 45, 60-72.

  1. Sensitivity of south-east Atlantic planktonic foraminifera to mid-Pleistocene climate change. Ufkes, E.L.S., Kroon, D., 2012. Palaeontology 55, 183-204.

  1. Quantifying sea surface temperature ranges of the Arabian Sea for the past 20 000 years. Ganssen, G.M., Peeters, F.J.C., Metcalfe, B., Anand, P., Jung, S.J.A., Kroon, D., Brummer, G.J.A., 2011. Clim. Past 7, 1337-1349.

  1. An astronomically-tuned climate framework for hominins in the Turkana Basin. Joordens, J.C.A., Vonhof, H.B., Feibel, C.S., Lourens, L.J., Dupont-Nivet, G., van der Lubbe, J.H.J.L., Sier, M.J., Davies, G.R., Kroon, D., 2011. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 307, 1-8.

  1. Paleo-redox fronts and their formation in carbonate mound sediments from the Rockall Trough. van der Land, C., Mienis, F., de Haas, H., de Stigter, H.C., Swennen, R., Reijmer, J.J.G., van Weering, T.C.E., 2011. Marine Geology 284, 86-95.

  1. Can shells of freshwater mussels (Unionidae) be used to estimate low summer discharge of rivers and associated droughts? Versteegh, E.A.A., Vonhof, H.B., Troelstra, S.R., Kroon, D., 2011. International Journal of Earth Sciences 100, 1423-1432.

  1. Belemnite-based strontium, carbon and oxygen isotope stratigraphy of the type area of the Maastrichtian Stage. Vonhof, H.B., Jagt, J.W.M., Immenhauser, A., Smit, J., van den Berg, Y.W., Saher, M., Keutgen, N., Reijmer, J.J.G., 2011. Netherlands Journal of Geosciences - Geologie en Mijnbouw 90, 259-270.

  1. Speleothem record of the last 180 ka in Villars cave (SW France): Investigation of a large δ18O shift between MIS6 and MIS5. Wainer, K., Genty, D., Blamart, D., Daëron, M., Bar-Matthews, M., Vonhof, H., Dublyansky, Y., Pons-Branchu, E., Thomas, L., van Calsteren, P., Quinif, Y., Caillon, N., 2011. Quaternary Science Reviews 30, 130-146.

  1. Younger Dryas–Holocene temperature and rainfall history of southern Indonesia from δ18O in speleothem calcite and fluid inclusions. Griffiths, M.L., Drysdale, R.N., Vonhof, H.B., Gagan, M.K., Zhao, J.-x., Ayliffe, L.K., Hantoro, W.S., Hellstrom, J.C., Cartwright, I., Frisia, S., Suwargadi, B.W., 2010. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 295, 30-36.

  1. Seasonally resolved growth of freshwater bivalves determined by oxygen and carbon isotope shell chemistry. Versteegh, E.A.A., Vonhof, H.B., Troelstra, S.R., Kaandorp, R.J.G., Kroon, D., 2010a. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 11, Q08022.

  1. A molluscan perspective on hydrological cycle dynamics in northwestern Europe. Versteegh, E.A.A., Vonhof, H.B., Troelstra, S.R., Kroon, D., 2010b. Netherlands Journal of Geosciences - Geologie en Mijnbouw 89, 51-60.

  1. Relevance of aquatic environments for hominins: a case study from Trinil (Java, Indonesia). Joordens, J.C.A., Wesselingh, F.P., de Vos, J., Vonhof, H.B., Kroon, D., 2009. Journal of Human Evolution 57, 656-671.

  1. Oxygen isotope composition of bivalve seasonal growth increments and ambient water in the rivers Rhine and Meuse. Versteegh, E.A.A., Troelstra, S.R., Vonhof, H.B., Kroon, D., 2009. PALAIOS 24, 497-504.